Guidelines for Spectacles in Infants and Children

These guidelines indicate when to prescribe spectacles and what amount of refractive error should be corrected. There is a general consensus that the range of refractive errors is wider at birth and in the first year of life than in later years. Most infants are hyperopic and the average cycloplegic refractive error is approximately +2.00 D13,14 with a standard deviation of about 2.00 D. There is evidence that uncorrected high refractive error during the first few years of childhood is a risk factor for amblyopia. Animal studies show that refractive correction influences the development of refractive error. This has to be considered for humans as well.