Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a type of disorder that affects kidneys overall structure and function. AKI is defined by a sudden decrease in kidney function that can include, but is not restricted to, Acute Renal Failure (ARF). It is an extensive clinical syndrome showing various etiologies, including specific kidney diseases, non-specific conditions, as well as extra renal pathology. More than one of these situations may coexist in the same patient and more over, epidemiological evidence supports the notion that even mild, reversible AKI has important clinical consequences, including increased risk of death. Thus, AKI can be similar to more like an acute lung injury or an acute coronary syndrome. In addition, manifestations and clinical consequences of AKI can be quite same regardless of whether the etiology is predominantly within the kidney or predominantly from outside stresses on the kidney. The syndrome of AKI encompasses both direct injury to the kidney as well as acute impairment of function.
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