welcome to disease section for tuberculosis 

Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB)
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB)

Signs and symptoms of active TB include such as fever, coughing that lasts three or more weeks, coughing up blood, chest pain, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and night sweats. During active TB, the infection spreads quickly. Symptoms are not always visible in every case. The harmful bacteria can remain in an inactive state and are not contagious. This is called lateral TB. Other associated symptoms of tuberculosis are loss of appetite, breathlessness, swollen lymph nodes, pneumonitis (in adults), etc.

Chest X ray of a patient with tuberculosis
Chest X ray of a patient with tuberculosis

Chest x-ray shows alveolar infiltration at both lungs due to mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The x-ray clearly shows that the opacities are located in the lungs toward the back. Chest radiography, or chest X-ray is a very important and effective tool for screening for pulmonary TB, and it is also useful to aid diagnosis when pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be confirmed through bacterial testing. If the images are not clear in an X-ray, a CT scan is done. Computed tomography (CT) scan takes multiple X-ray pictures to build detailed images of the chest. For confirmation, a blood test is also recommended.

Tuberculosis infection
Tuberculosis infection

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. The bacteria are spread through the air from person to person when a person with TB disease coughs, speaks, or sings. The bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) causes tuberculosis. In the initial stage, there might be no symptoms. Doctors suggest that people should get regular checkup done if cough lasts for more than 3 weeks. Tuberculosis is treatable if medicines are taken as prescribed for a given tenure. 

An illustration of a lung infected with tuberculosis
An illustration of a lung infected with tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family of mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease. This lung disease is also called as Pulmonary tuberculosis. Some common symptoms of tuberculosis are constant fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, chest pain, coughing up blood, etc. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease and it can spread between family members, close friends, and people who work or live together. With lungs, TB can also infect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine and brain.

Main symptoms and risk factors of tuberculosis
Main symptoms and risk factors of tuberculosis

Common symptoms of TB are a persistent cough, fatigue, loss of appetite, night sweats, coughing up blood, weight loss. Risk factors include infection with HIV, chronic conditions such as diabetes, persons who were infected with M. tuberculosis within the past 2 years, and people whose immune systems are weak.

Progression of tuberculosis
Progression of tuberculosis

The initial infection with the bacteria is often in childhood. TB bacteria most commonly spreads via inhaled droplets and so the lungs are infected first. The progression of tuberculosis from latent infection to active disease varies greatly. About 10% deaths in the 19th century were estimated to have occured due to TB.

Chest X rays
Chest X rays

Chest X-ray show patchy infiltration, interstitial infiltration, alveolar infiltration, cavity, fibrosis at lung due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Treatment of tuberculosis
Treatment of tuberculosis

Treatment isn't always required for patients who do not show symptoms. Patients with active symptoms require a long course of treatment that includes multiple antibiotics. The most common medication used to treat tuberculosis include Isoniazid Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)