What Are the Causes and Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease?

Tatheer Zehra Zaidi   by Tatheer Zehra Zaidi, M. Pharma    Last updated on February 21, 2021,

what are the causes and risk factors for chronic kidney disease


Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease

Each kidney in our body contains about 1 million filtering units. These are called nephrons. Any disease that injures these nephrons can cause kidney disease. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is not a single disease. Diabetes and high blood pressure can both damage your nephrons and are the most important causes of CKD.

High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels of your kidneys, heart, and brain too. The kidneys contain lots of blood vessels and any blood vessel disease is generally dangerous to our kidneys. Autoimmune diseases such as lupus have the potential to cause damage to the blood vessels and can make antibodies against kidney tissues leading to its damage.

There are various other causes of CKD such as polycystic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, streptococcal infection etc.

Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

In the majority of cases, progressive kidney damage can occur due to various factors. There are several risk factors that can contribute in the damage of the kidneys and development of the CKD. The risk of CKD increases after an age of 65 years. The condition also runs in families. The disease is more common among African-Americans, Native Americans, and Asian-Americans. The risk factors for the Chronic Kidney Disease are listed below.

  • diabetes - chronic kidney disease is linked to diabetes. On the off chance that the patient's diabetes is not all around controlled, overabundance sugar (glucose) can aggregate in the blood. Kidney ailment is not regular amid the initial 10 years of diabetes; it all the more ordinarily happens 15-25 years after diagnosis of diabetes.

  • hypertension (high blood pressure) - high blood pressure can damage the glomeruli - parts of the kidney which are involved in filtering waste products.

  • obstructed urine flow - if urine flow is obstructed, it can back up into the kidney from the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux). Blocked urine stream expands weight on the kidneys and undermines their capacity. Conceivable causes incorporate a developed prostate, kidney stones, or a tumor.

  • hereditary & genetic factors- Polycystic kidney

  • kidney artery stenosis - the renal artery narrows or is blocked before it enters the kidney.

  • fetal developmental problem - if the kidneys do not develop properly in the unborn baby while it is developing in the womb, it can cause kidney disease.

  • systemic lupus erythematosis – it is an autoimmune disease. Our body's own immune system attacks the kidneys as though they were foreign tissue.

  • Malaria and yellow fever – it is known to cause impaired kidney function.

  • certain medications - overuse of, for example, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen can cause CKD.

  • illegal substance abuse - such as heroin or cocaine.

  • obesity, hypercholesterolemia

  • injury - a sharp blow or physical injury to the kidney(s) can also be fatal for kidneys

  • certain toxins, metals - including fuels, solvents, (for example, carbon tetrachloride), and lead (and toxic paint, pipes, and patching materials) can contribute to the development of CKD. Indeed, even a few sorts of gems/jewellery have poisons, which can prompt perpetual kidney illness.

  • cigarette smoking

  • high cholesterol

  • bladder obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • cirrhosis and liver failure

  • bladder cancer

  • kidney cancer

  • kidney stones

  • kidney infection

  • scleroderma

  • vasculitis

Tatheer Zehra Zaidi

Tatheer Zehra Zaidi is a clinical pharmacist and pharmacologist with a master’s degree in pharmacy practice. She aims to deliver a positive contribution in the field of healthcare and research. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Jamia Hamdard New Delhi and then joined Spirant Communication Private LTD as a Medical content writer.


Currently she is working at Maxinov Solutions Private LTD as a research associate and is associated with DiseaseFix as a medical content writer. Tatheer’s areas of interest include clinical research, clinical trial disclosure, and pharmacovigilance.

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