Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a brief surgical procedure to remove tissue from inside the uterus. Doctors perform this procedure to diagnose and treat certain uterine conditions such as heavy bleeding, fibroids, endometrial cancer, or to clear the uterine lining after a miscarriage or abortion.
This is a photomicrograph of an endometrial biopsy in a patient with abnormal bleeding. The image shows benign proliferative endometrium, part of the normal menstrual cycle. No hyperplasia or malignancy (endometrial cancer) is seen in this case.
Hyperplasia is the enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells. This is generally considered as an initial stage in the development of endometrial cancer. If you are at high risk of cancer, your doctor will look for any signs of hyperplasia too among other signs.
Unusual vaginal bleeding, spotting, or other discharge is a common early sign of endometrial cancer. About 90% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer have abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as a change in their periods or bleeding between periods or after the menopause.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of uterus of women. It may also involve removal of neaby organs such as the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and other surrounding structures. The image shows after hysterectomy has been performed and there is no uterus in the pelvis.
Visualization of uterus through hysterescopy shows endometrial cancer. Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to see inside the uterus to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. Hysteroscopy is done using a thin, lighted tube called hysteroscope that is inserted into the vagina.