Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females. It is a hormonal problem that occurs among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have disturbed menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels if they suffer with PCOS. It affects 1 in 10 women of childbearing age.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that affects the normal functioning of a woman’s ovary. PCOS is abnormal formation of numerous cysts (fluid-filled sacs) under the surface of the ovaries of a woman. It is associated with excess release of androgen hormones. Women with PCOS are at an increased risk of multiple health problems such as infertility, obesity, cholesterol and blood fat abnormalities, cancer, hypertension, etc. PCOS doubles the risk of ovarian cancer. Some studies have also shown that infertility due to PCOS increases the risk of invasive ovarian tumors. Ovarian cancer is an outcome of multiplication of abnormal cells in the ovary and leads to tumor formation.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder which affects the ovaries and ovulation in women. Main features of PCOS are cysts in the ovaries, high levels of male hormones, irregular or skipped periods, etc. Complications of PCOS can be infertility, miscarriage or premature birth, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, etc. PCOS can be diagnosed with the help of a special ultrasound known as transvaginal ultrasound. It is referred to as endovaginal (through the vagina) ultrasound as it is used to diagnose the pelvic region in women which includes uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and vagina. Transvaginal ultrasound detects multiple conditions cancer, cysts, fibroids, ectopic pregnancy, etc. During the procedure, a special transducer with a lubricating gel is inserted into the vagina which is circulated around the inside of the pelvis and images are taken.
Common symptoms of PCOS are shown in the image. The symptoms of PCOS may include excess hair growth, scalp hair loss, acne, weight gain, difficulties with fertility, increased anxiety and depression and irregular periods. PCOS is the leading cause of female infertility worldwide.