Early diagnosis of prostate problems helps to prevent various chronic conditions such as prostate cancer, kidney damage, etc. When symptoms such as difficulty in urination, pain during ejaculation, etc are observed, prostate test should be done. For enlarged prostate, tests such as digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen, cystoscopy, urodynamic tests, etc are recommended. Cystoscopy is a procedure to detect the degree of blockage in the lower urinary tract. During cystoscopy, a tube with a tiny camera is inserted into the urethra through the opening at the end of the penis to examine the complete length and width of the urethra and the prostate. It also helps in the diagnosis of tumors and bladder-related conditions.
The prostate gland is a part of male reproductive organ which rests on the bladder and surrounds the urethra. The healthy prostate gland is capable to produce some of the fluid in semen that carries sperm during ejaculation. In case of enlarged prostate, the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra (the tube through which urine passes out of the body) is blocked. Due to an increased hormonal activity, over-growth of prostate cells leads to prostate enlargement which puts a pressure on the urethra and narrows it. This ultimately increases the chances of urine infection, kidney stones, bladder stones, etc.
The prostate gland is located between the bladder and the penis, in-front of the rectum and is about the size of a walnut. The prostate is divided into these anatomical zones: central zone, transitional zone and peripheral zone. The arterial supply to the prostate comes from the prostatic arteries and venous drainage of the prostate is via the prostatic venous plexus. Several diseases and conditions associated with prostate are prostate cancer, enlarged prostate, prostatitis, hematuria, etc. Enlarged prostate is the swelling of prostate gland. Risk of enlarged prostate increases with age and causes difficulty in urination, dribbling of urine, UTI’s, etc.
3D illustration showing enlarged prostate gland and photomicrograph showing dilated glands, enfolding of the glandular epithelial cells, cystic dilatation. It is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or benign prostatic hypertrophy or benign prostatic obstruction. An enlarged prostate is very common in men over the age of about 50. Certain imbalance of hormones (oestrogen and testosterone) due to aging may cause the prostate to grow in size.