welcome to disease section for prostatitis 

Examination of the prostate with cystoscopy
Examination of the prostate with cystoscopy
Prostate gland anatomy
Prostate gland anatomy

Prostate gland is a small walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in men. It produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. It is located between the bladder and the penis, just in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, which allows the urine to flow out of the body.

Physical examination for prostatitis (digital rectal exam)
Physical examination for prostatitis (digital rectal exam)

The digital rectal examination (DRE) is a procedure in which a physician tries to feel the surface of the prostate with a gloved finger. It is slightly uncomfortable but is considered to be an important test to detect early stage prostate cancer and other prostate conditions particualrly to rule out if the symptoms are due to prostate cancer or something else. DRE is helpful in diagnosing rectal bleeding and tumors, enlarged prostate, assess the extent of hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal bleeding, colon cancer, etc. Although DRE is not reliable test but it is a simple way of diagnosing any prostrate abnormality including the prostatitis.

Inflammatory process in prostate gland
Inflammatory process in prostate gland

When the prostate gland feels irritated or sore, it swells. Inflammation or swelling is triggered by the bacterial infection as an immune response to it. Inflammasomes act as sensors and effectors during prostatitis. When the process of inflammation begins in prostate, the harmful pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells are removed. Inflammation is the beginning of the healing process. Prostate swelling is therefore a pathological inflammatory change in prostate tissue.

Can prostatitis lead to cancer?
Can prostatitis lead to cancer?

Prostatitis is a benign ailment, which though is not always curable but can be treated with antibiotics. It is not a cancer. It is not clear whether untreated inflammation of the prostate may lead to the development of prostate cancer. Studies are going on to determine if prostate inflammation is linked to prostate cancer and whether reducing the inflammation can help prevent the cancer of prostate. For some cases, researchers suggest that taking anti-inflammatory agents that target the enzyme cyclooxygenase might help to reduce the risk of cancer. It was also estimated that about 20% men with prostatitis are at an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Basics about prostatitis
Basics about prostatitis

Prostatitis is a painful condition due to inflammation of prostate gland (in men). The main cause of prostatitis is supposed to be bacterial infection and can be chronic and acute. The symptoms of prostatitis are burning or painful urination and ejaculation, pain in rectum, blood in urine or semen, urinary blockage (no urine comes out), etc. Prostatitis can cause inflammation of the coiled tube attached to the back of the testicle, prostatic abscess, infertility, etc. Antibiotics are used to treat acute prostatitis. For treating chronic prostatitis, alpha-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neuromodulators, etc are recommended.

Blood in urine: a sign of prostatitis
Blood in urine: a sign of prostatitis

Prostatitis is the inflammation or swelling of the prostate gland which may cause pain and sometimes lead to hematuria or blood in urine. Blood in urine is not an extremely severe problem but in case of prostatitis, gross hematuria can indicate prostate cancer. The color of the urine changes from yellow to dark yellow to pink and then turns reddish brown. Blood in urine is also a sign of many other problems such as kidney stones or injury, ureter and bladder problems, urinary tract infections, etc.

Normal prostate vs prostatitis
Normal prostate vs prostatitis

Prostatitis is the swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland. The prostate gland produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm in men. Prostatitis is often painful and causes difficulty in urination. Some other symptoms include pain in the groin, pelvic area or genitals and sometimes flu-like symptoms. Prostatitis treatments involve use of antibiotics, alpha blockers, anti-inflammatory agents, etc depending on its cause.