When the kidneys excrete a significant amount of fluid through the urine, an uncommon disease known as diabetes insipidus develops. Between three and twenty quarts of urine can be passed by a child with diabetes insipidus in a single day. A healthy child normally excretes one to two quarts of liquids every day, in contrast. The prevalence of diabetes insipidus among children is one in 30,000. These children either don’t produce enough vasopressin or their kidneys don’t react to it. As a result, their urine contains an excessive amount of water. The term “insipid” refers to diluted, odorless urine.
Diabetes insipidus is distinct from diabetes mellitus, which encompasses both type 1 and type 2 diabetes despite having a similar name. Children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have high blood sugar levels, yet both types of diabetes produce frequent urination and thirst. Blood sugar levels in kids with diabetes insipidus are typical. Diabetes insipidus in children requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. If the illness is not treated, it may result in severe dehydration, which may harm the brain or impair mental function.
Insufficient levels of the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body lead to diabetes insipidus. Another name for ADH is vasopressin. This hormone aids the kidneys in maintaining the ideal level of bodily water. “Water diabetes” is another name for the ailment. The amount of water in the urine that the kidneys produce is governed by ADH. The hypothalamus, a little gland located at the base of the brain, secretes ADH. When required, it is released into the bloodstream from where it is kept in the pituitary gland. The amount of water the kidneys produce into urine is decreased by ADH. By doing this, dehydration is avoided. The kidneys remove an excessive amount of water from the blood when someone has diabetes insipidus. This results in the body producing a lot of urine that is very watery and creates thirst.
Types of Disease
The illness comes in 4 forms:
Central diabetes insipidus:
This kind does not produce or secrete enough ADH. Most frequently, the hypothalamus or pituitary gland have been damaged. Common reasons include brain damage and uncommon genetic diseases.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus:
The kidneys’ response to ADH is abnormal in this kind. The most frequent causes of this are medications or long-term illnesses. The kidneys may be impacted by some hereditary diseases from birth. Kidney failure, sickle cell disease, and polycystic renal disease are further causes of kidney issues.
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus:
This is brought on by a difficulty with your child’s thirst perception. Your child becomes unusually thirsty and drinks a lot as a result. Then, your youngster urinates more.
Gestational diabetes insipidus:
Only during pregnancy, this happens, and it normally goes away once your baby is born. If you become pregnant again, it can return.
How Is Diabetic Insipidus Determined?
Usually, diabetes insipidus is not visible at birth. When parents take a dehydrated infant to the doctor, it is frequently diagnosed. Your child’s doctor may inquire about the following in addition to collecting a thorough medical history and performing a physical examination:
- How much fluid does your child consume?
- What kind of food and how much of it your youngster is eating?
- How frequently and how frequently does your youngster use the restroom (both the intestines and the bladder)?
The following examinations aid in identifying diabetic insipidus:
- Doctors can compare the concentration (or dilution) of a child’s urine using urine tests.
- Blood tests to check for diabetes insipidus, which may be present if the child’s blood is more concentrated than their urine.
- In a water deprivation test, the youngster is denied water for a brief amount of time while a doctor watches them. The youngster may have diabetes insipidus if they become dehydrated more quickly than usual. Only a hospital should do this test.
- Clinicians can use imaging studies like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look for abnormalities in the pituitary.
Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus
The cause will determine the appropriate course of treatment. Diabetes insipidus is typically treated by addressing the underlying cause. Synthetic ADH may be used for treatment. This can be administered nasally, intravenously, or as a pill. Medicines that stimulate the body to produce more ADH are among the other treatments. This also applies to NSAIDs like ibuprofen and water tablets (diuretics).
Your child has to consume a lot of water as well. This will prevent your child from becoming dehydrated by replacing the fluids the body loses through excessive urination. Your child’s fluid intake and urine output may need to be monitored. To ensure the proper dosage of the medication, your child’s healthcare professional will frequently check the sodium levels in your child’s blood.
Key Factors About Diabetes Insipidus In Children
- Insufficient levels of the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body lead to diabetes insipidus. This hormone aids the kidneys in maintaining the ideal level of bodily water.
- The amount of water the kidneys produce into urine is decreased by ADH. By doing this, dehydration is avoided. The kidneys remove an excessive amount of water from the blood when someone has diabetes insipidus. This results in the body producing a lot of urine that is very watery and creates thirst.
- There are four different forms of diabetes insipidus: gestational, nephrogenic, central, and dipsogenic. Each behaves differently and stems from various factors.
- Excessive thirst and urination may be symptoms.
- A urine test, blood test, and a water deprivation test could be performed on your child.
- Synthetic ADH may be used for treatment. This can be administered nasally, intravenously, or as a pill. Medicines that stimulate the body to produce more ADH are among the other treatments.
- Diabetes insipidus in children can cause issues including brain damage and stunted growth if it is not treated.
A child with diabetes insipidus can live a full, healthy life with therapy.